Title: Cardiometabolic health improvements upon dietary intervention are driven by tissue-specific insulin resistance phenotype: a precision nutrition trial
|Authors:||Inez Trouwborst et al|
This new breakthrough study, Cardiometabolic health improvements upon dietary intervention are driven by tissue-specific insulin resistance phenotype: a precision nutrition trial, for the first time ever confirms clinically relevant health benefits of a personalised diet. The study rejects the current ‘one size fits all’ dietary paradigm, concluding that cardiometabolic health after dietary macronutrient intervention is driven by an individual metabolic profile, which is defined by tissue-specific insulin resistance.
The study defines two relevant dietary phenotypes based on tissue-specific insulin resistance, which determines macronutrient composition of an advised diet: liver resistance (LIR) and muscle resistance (MIR). A total of 242 participants were assessed on their glucose and lipids (fat) metabolism, as well as sensitivity to insulin, before and after a three-month dietary period.
The researchers designed two diet types within the boundaries of the Dutch dietary guidelines to assess effects on health, namely a high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet (HMUFA) and a low fat, high protein, high fibre diet (LFHP). Two randomised PhenoDiet groups were defined, with PhenoDiet group A observing MIR individuals following HMUFA diet and LIR individuals following LFHP diet, and PhenoDiet group B observing MIR individuals on LFHP and LIR individuals on HMUFA.
Results showed improved insulin sensitivity and overall metabolic health in PhenoDiet group B. The conclusion was based on fasting plasma insulin, TAG concentrations, glucose tolerance, and CRP in group B compared to group A. The results demonstrate that individuals with distinct tissue-specific IR phenotypes respond differentially to dietary macronutrient modification.
While underlying mechanisms for the observed pronounced improvements remain to be elucidated, the findings provide evidence for greater effectiveness of a precision nutrition strategy based on tissue specific IR phenotypes. The findings create a promising future for personalised preventative nutrition-based solutions for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
You can find the full publication here Cardiometabolic health improvements upon dietary intervention are driven by tissue-specific insulin resistance phenotype: A precision nutrition trial – ScienceDirect